User Guide

Dependencies & installation

This project depends on

  • Python 3
  • distro Python 3 package
  • jsonschema Python 3 package
  • PyYAML Python 3 package (optional, for yaml file support)

To install kas into your python site-package repository, run:

$ sudo pip3 install .

Usage

There are (at least) four options for using kas:

  • Install it locally via pip to get the kas command.
  • Use the container image locally. In this case, download the kas-container script from the kas repository and use it in place of the kas command. The script version corresponds to the kas tool and the kas image version.
  • Use the container image in CI. Specify ghcr.io/siemens/kas/kas[-isar][:<x.y>] in your CI script that requests a container image as runtime environment. See https://github.com/orgs/siemens/packages/container/kas%2Fkas/versions and https://github.com/orgs/siemens/packages/container/kas%2Fkas-isar/versions for all available images.
  • Use the run-kas wrapper from this directory. In this case, replace kas in the examples below with path/to/run-kas.

Start build:

$ kas build /path/to/kas-project.yml

Alternatively, experienced bitbake users can invoke usual bitbake steps manually, e.g.:

$ kas shell /path/to/kas-project.yml -c 'bitbake dosfsutils-native'

kas will place downloads and build artifacts under the current directory when being invoked. You can specify a different location via the environment variable KAS_WORK_DIR.

Use Cases

  1. Initial build/setup:

    $ mkdir $PROJECT_DIR
    $ cd $PROJECT_DIR
    $ git clone $PROJECT_URL meta-project
    $ kas build meta-project/kas-project.yml
    
  2. Update/rebuild:

    $ cd $PROJECT_DIR/meta-project
    $ git pull
    $ kas build kas-project.yml
    

Plugins

kas sub-commands are implemented by a series of plugins. Each plugin typically provides a single command.

build plugin

This plugin implements the kas build command.

When this command is executed, kas will checkout repositories, setup the build environment and then invoke bitbake to build the targets selected in the chosen config file.

For example, to build the configuration described in the file kas-project.yml you could run:

kas build kas-project.yml

checkout plugin

This plugin implements the kas checkout command.

When this command is executed, kas will checkout repositories and set up the build directory as specified in the chosen config file. This command is useful if you need to inspect the configuration or modify any of the checked out layers before starting a build.

For example, to setup the configuration described in the file kas-project.yml you could run:

kas checkout kas-project.yml

for-all-repos plugin

This plugin implements the kas for-all-repos command.

When this command is executed, kas will checkout the repositories listed in the chosen config file and then execute a specified command in each repository. It can be used to query the repository status, automate actions such as archiving the layers used in a build or to execute any other required commands.

For example, to print the commit hashes used by each repository used in the file kas-project.yml (assuming they are all git repositories) you could run:

kas for-all-repos kas-project.yml 'git rev-parse HEAD'

The environment for executing the command in each repository is extended to include the following variables:

  • KAS_REPO_NAME: The name of the current repository determined by either the name property or by the key used for this repo in the config file.
  • KAS_REPO_PATH: The path of the local directory where this repository is checked out, relative to the directory where kas is executed.
  • KAS_REPO_URL: The URL from which this repository was cloned, or an empty string if no remote URL was given in the config file.
  • KAS_REPO_REFSPEC: The refspec which was checked out for this repository, or an empty string if no refspec was given in the config file.

shell plugin

This plugin implements the kas shell command.

When this command is executed, kas will checkout repositories, setup the build environment and then start a shell in the build environment. This can be used to manually run bitbake with custom command line options or to execute other commands such as runqemu.

For example, to start a shell in the build environment for the file kas-project.yml you could run:

kas shell kas-project.yml

Or to invoke qemu to test an image which has been built:

kas shell kas-project.yml -c 'runqemu'

Project Configuration

Currently, JSON and YAML are supported as the base file formats. Since YAML is arguably easier to read, this documentation focuses on the YAML format.

# Every file needs to contain a header, that provides kas with information
# about the context of this file.
header:
  # The `version` entry in the header describes for which configuration
  # format version this file was created for. It is used by kas to figure
  # out if it is compatible with this file. The version is an integer that
  # is increased on every format change.
  version: x
# The machine as it is written into the `local.conf` of bitbake.
machine: qemux86-64
# The distro name as it is written into the `local.conf` of bitbake.
distro: poky
repos:
  # This entry includes the repository where the config file is located
  # to the bblayers.conf:
  meta-custom:
  # Here we include a list of layers from the poky repository to the
  # bblayers.conf:
  poky:
    url: "https://git.yoctoproject.org/git/poky"
    refspec: 89e6c98d92887913cadf06b2adb97f26cde4849b
    layers:
      meta:
      meta-poky:
      meta-yocto-bsp:

A minimal input file consists out of the header, machine, distro, and repos.

Additionally, you can add bblayers_conf_header and local_conf_header which are strings that are added to the head of the respective files (bblayers.conf or local.conf):

bblayers_conf_header:
  meta-custom: |
    POKY_BBLAYERS_CONF_VERSION = "2"
    BBPATH = "${TOPDIR}"
    BBFILES ?= ""
local_conf_header:
  meta-custom: |
    PATCHRESOLVE = "noop"
    CONF_VERSION = "1"
    IMAGE_FSTYPES = "tar"

meta-custom in these examples should be a unique name (in project scope) for this configuration entries. We assume that your configuration file is part of a meta-custom repository/layer. This way its possible to overwrite or append entries in files that include this configuration by naming an entry the same (overwriting) or using an unused name (appending).

Including in-tree configuration files

It’s currently possible to include kas configuration files from the same repository/layer like this:

header:
  version: x
  includes:
    - base.yml
    - bsp.yml
    - product.yml

The specified files are addressed relative to your current configuration file.

Including configuration files from other repos

It’s also possible to include configuration files from other repos like this:

header:
  version: x
  includes:
    - repo: poky
      file: kas-poky.yml
    - repo: meta-bsp-collection
      file: hw1/kas-hw-bsp1.yml
    - repo: meta-custom
      file: products/product.yml
repos:
  meta-custom:
  meta-bsp-collection:
    url: "https://www.example.com/git/meta-bsp-collection"
    refspec: 3f786850e387550fdab836ed7e6dc881de23001b
    layers:
      # Additional to the layers that are added from this repository
      # in the hw1/kas-hw-bsp1.yml, we add here an additional bsp
      # meta layer:
      meta-custom-bsp:
  poky:
    url: "https://git.yoctoproject.org/git/poky"
    refspec: 89e6c98d92887913cadf06b2adb97f26cde4849b
    layers:
      # If `kas-poky.yml` adds the `meta-yocto-bsp` layer and we
      # do not want it in our bblayers for this project, we can
      # overwrite it by setting:
      meta-yocto-bsp: excluded

The files are addressed relative to the git repository path.

The include mechanism collects and merges the content from top to bottom and depth first. That means that settings in one include file are overwritten by settings in a latter include file and entries from the last include file can be overwritten by the current file. While merging all the dictionaries are merged recursively while preserving the order in which the entries are added to the dictionary. This means that local_conf_header entries are added to the local.conf file in the same order in which they are defined in the different include files. Note that the order of the configuration file entries is not preserved within one include file, because the parser creates normal unordered dictionaries.

Including configuration files via the command line

When specifying the kas configuration file on the command line, additional configurations can be included ad-hoc:

$ kas build kas-base.yml:debug-image.yml:board.yml

This is equivalent to static inclusion from some kas-combined.yml like this:

header:
  version: x
  includes:
    - kas-base.yml
    - debug.image.yml
    - board.yml

Command line inclusion allows to create configurations on-demand, without the need to write a kas configuration file for each possible combination.

Note that all configuration files combined via the command line either have to come from the same repository or have to live outside of any versioning control. kas will refuse any other combination in order to avoid complications and configuration flaws that can easily emerge from them.

Configuration reference

  • header: dict [required]

    The header of every kas configuration file. It contains information about the context of the file.

    • version: integer [required]

      Lets kas check if it is compatible with this file. See the configuration format changelog for the format history and the latest available version.

    • includes: list [optional]

      A list of configuration files this current file is based on. They are merged in order they are stated. So a latter one could overwrite settings from previous files. The current file can overwrite settings from every included file. An item in this list can have one of two types:

      • item: string

        The path to a kas configuration file, relative to the repository root of the current file.

      • item: dict

        If files from other repositories should be included, choose this representation.

        • repo: string [required]
          The id of the repository where the file is located. The repo needs to be defined in the repos dictionary as <repo-id>.
        • file: string [required]
          The path to the file, relative to the root of the specified repository.
  • build_system: string [optional]

    Defines the bitbake-based build system. Known build systems are openembedded (or oe) and isar. If set, this restricts the search of kas for the init script in the configured repositories to oe-init-build-env or isar-init-build-env, respectively. If kas-container finds this property in the top-level kas configuration file (includes are not evaluated), it will automatically select the required container image and invocation mode.

  • defaults: dict [optional]

    This key can be used to set default values for various properties. This may help you to avoid repeating the same property assignment in multiple places if, for example, you wish to use the same refspec for all repositories.

    • repos: dict [optional]

      This key can contain default values for some repository properties. If a default value is set for a repository property it may still be overridden by setting the same property to a different value in a given repository.

      • refspec: string [optional]

        Sets the default refspec property applied to all repositories that do not override this.

      • patches: dict [optional]

        This key can contain default values for some repository patch properties. If a default value is set for a patch property it may still be overridden by setting the same property to a different value in a given patch.

        • repo: string [optional]
          Sets the default repo property applied to all repository patches that do not override this.
  • machine: string [optional]

    Contains the value of the MACHINE variable that is written into the local.conf. Can be overwritten by the KAS_MACHINE environment variable and defaults to qemux86-64.

  • distro: string [optional]

    Contains the value of the DISTRO variable that is written into the local.conf. Can be overwritten by the KAS_DISTRO environment variable and defaults to poky.

  • target: string [optional] or list [optional]

    Contains the target or a list of targets to build by bitbake. Can be overwritten by the KAS_TARGET environment variable and defaults to core-image-minimal. Space is used as a delimiter if multiple targets should be specified via the environment variable.

  • env: dict [optional]

    Contains environment variable names with the default values. These variables are made available to bitbake via BB_ENV_EXTRAWHITE and can be overwritten by the variables of the environment in which kas is started.

  • task: string [optional]

    Contains the task to build by bitbake. Can be overwritten by the KAS_TASK environment variable and defaults to build.

  • repos: dict [optional]

    Contains the definitions of all available repos and layers.

    • <repo-id>: dict [optional]

      Contains the definition of a repository and the layers, that should be part of the build. If the value is None, the repository, where the current configuration file is located is defined as <repo-id> and added as a layer to the build.

      • name: string [optional]

        Defines under which name the repository is stored. If its missing the <repo-id> will be used.

      • url: string [optional]

        The url of the repository. If this is missing, no version control operations are performed.

      • type: string [optional]

        The type of version control repository. The default value is git and hg is also supported.

      • refspec: string [optional]

        The refspec that should be used. If url was specified but no refspec the revision you get depends on the defaults of the version control system used.

      • path: string [optional]

        The path where the repository is stored. If the url and path is missing, the repository where the current configuration file is located is defined. If the url is missing and the path defined, this entry references the directory the path points to. If the url as well as the path is defined, the path is used to overwrite the checkout directory, that defaults to kas_work_dir + repo.name. In case of a relative path name kas_work_dir is prepended.

      • layers: dict [optional]

        Contains the layers from this repository that should be added to the bblayers.conf. If this is missing or None or and empty dictionary, the path to the repo itself is added as a layer.

        • <layer-path>: enum [optional]
          Adds the layer with <layer-path> that is relative to the repository root directory, to the bblayers.conf if the value of this entry is not in this list: ['disabled', 'excluded', 'n', 'no', '0', 'false']. This way it is possible to overwrite the inclusion of a layer in latter loaded configuration files.
      • patches: dict [optional]

        Contains the patches that should be applied to this repo before it is used.

        • <patches-id>: dict [optional]

          One entry in patches with its specific and unique id. All available patch entries are applied in the order of their sorted <patches-id>.

          • repo: string [required]
            The identifier of the repo where the path of this entry is relative to.
          • path: string [required]
            The path to one patch file or a quilt formatted patchset directory.
  • bblayers_conf_header: dict [optional]

    This contains strings that should be added to the bblayers.conf before any layers are included.

    • <bblayers-conf-id>: string [optional]
      A string that is added to the bblayers.conf. The entry id (<bblayers-conf-id>) should be unique if lines should be added and can be the same from another included file, if this entry should be overwritten. The lines are added to bblayers.conf in the same order as they are included from the different configuration files.
  • local_conf_header: dict [optional]

    This contains strings that should be added to the local.conf.

    • <local-conf-id>: string [optional]
      A string that is added to the local.conf. It operates in the same way as the bblayers_conf_header entry.